A new study suggests that symptoms of depression and insomnia are the strongest predictors of having frequent nightmares.

Results show that 3.9% of participants reported having frequent nightmares during the previous 30 days, including 4.8% of women and 2.9% of men. Frequent nightmares were reported by 28.4% of participants with severe depressive symptoms and 17.1% of those with frequent insomnia. Further analysis that adjusted for potential confounders found that the strongest independent risk factors for nightmares were insomnia, exhaustion and the depressive symptom of “negative attitude toward self.”

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