HealthDay News  — Vitamin D deficiency is associated with schizophrenia, according to a review published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Ghazaleh Valipour, from the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Iran, and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to examine the correlation between serum vitamin D levels and schizophrenia.

Nineteen studies were included in three meta-analyses, which examined mean levels of serum hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D; 13 studies), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (eight studies), and odds ratios for schizophrenia (eight studies).

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The researchers observed an overall mean difference of −5.91 ng/mL in serum 25(OH)D levels between patients with schizophrenia and control participants. Between-study heterogeneity was not associated with hospitalization status, study quality, and study location, but was partially explained by type of biomarker assessed.

The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 65.3% in patients with schizophrenia. Compared with individuals with vitamin D sufficiency, those with vitamin D deficiency were 2.16-fold more likely to have schizophrenia, with no indication of heterogeneity.

“We found a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia. However, randomized clinical trials are required to confirm our findings,” the researchers wrote.


  1. Valipour G et al. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014; doi: