HealthDay News — Work, non-work, and individual factors explain a considerable part of psychological distress, depression, and emotional exhaustion, according to a study published online in Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.

Alain Marchand, PhD, from the University of Montreal, Canada, and colleagues collected data from the SALVEO study from 2009 to 2012 for 1,954 employees nested in 63 workplaces. The authors sought to examine the contribution of work, non-work, and individual factors to workers’ mental health.

The researchers found that variables accounted for 32.2, 48.4, and 48.8% of psychological distress, depression, and emotional exhaustion, respectively. Between workplaces, there was slight variation in mental health outcomes; outcomes were related to skill utilization, physical and psychological demands, abusive supervision, interpersonal conflicts, and job insecurity.

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The outcomes were affected by factors such as living in a couple, having young children, family-to-work and work-to-family conflict, strained marital and parental relations, and social support outside the workplace. The number and type of work factors related to the three outcomes were modulated by non-work and individual factors.

“The results of this study suggest expanding perspectives on occupational mental health that fully recognize the complexity of workers’ mental health determinants,” the authors write.


  1. Marchand A, et al. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014; doi:10.1007/s00127-014-0932-y