Involvement in bullying and victimization has been mostly studied using cross-sectional data from one time point. As such, much of our understanding of bullying and victimization has not captured the dynamic experiences of youth over time.

To examine the change of latent statuses in bullying and victimization, we applied latent transition analysis examining self-reported bullying involvement from 1,180 students in 5th through 9th grades across three time points. We identified unobserved heterogeneous subgroups (i.e., latent statuses) and investigated how students transition between the unobserved subgroups over time.

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