Does this patient have a hypermobility syndrome such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or joint hypermobility syndrome?
Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) are connective tissue disorders with multisystem manifestations. Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a connective tissue disorder that primarily affects the musculoskeletal system. All of these disorders may present with symptoms referable to joint hypermobility, including joint pain, swelling, instability, and dislocation, as well as back pain.
Concern regarding the presence of the more severe MFS or EDS should be raised when a patient presents with hypermobile joints in the setting of an abnormal body habitus, fragile or translucent skin with sagging and redundancy, or a family history of aortic insufficiency or aortic dilatation or rupture, suggesting a more severe phenotype. These disorders have variable modes of inheritance and associated genetic defects.
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease. Patients typically present with joint hypermobility, and may have pectus carinatum or excavatum, pes planus (flat feet), and scoliosis. Given their abnormally shaped chest walls, they are at risk for pneumothorax. They may also have mitral valve prolapse and myopia.
MFS is caused by mutations in the Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene with an approximate incidence of 1 in 3300 to 1 in 5000. Finding an FBN1 mutation is not sufficient to make a diagnosis of MFS, however, as other conditions related to MFS are also caused by FBN1 mutations, such as familial ectopia lentis syndrome (ELS) and MASS phenotype (mitral valve prolapse, mild aortic dilatation, striae atrophica, and skeletal features).
Other diseases are also caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene, including Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS), a syndrome characterized by Marfanoid habitus with craniosynostosis and developmental delay, and Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS), a syndrome characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, microspherophakia, and joint stiffness. See Table I and Table II for diagnostic criteria of MFS.
|Wrist and thumb sign, orWrist or thumb sign**||3, or1|
|Pectus carinatum deformity, orPectus excavatum or chest asymmetry||2, or1|
|Hindfoot deformity, orPlain pes planus||2, or1|
|Reduced upper segment:lower segment ratio (US/LS)† and increased arm span:height ratio¶ and no severe scoliosis||1|
|Scoliosis or thoracolumbar kyphosis||1|
|Reduced elbow extension (≤ 170 degrees on full extension)||1|
|Facial features (≥ 3 out of 5): dolichocephaly, enophthalmos, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, retrognathia||1|
|Myopia > 3 diopters||1|
|Mitral valve prolapse (all types)||1|
* Maximum score = 20. Systemic score ≥ 7 indicates systemic involvement.
** Wrist sign: The tip of the 1st finger (thumb) completely covers the nail of the fifth finger (pinky) when encircling the contralateral wrist.
Thumb sign: When the thumb is adducted across the palm (actively or passively), the entire distal phalanx of the thumb extends beyond the ulnar border of the palm.
† LS = length from the superior aspect of the pubic symphysis to the ground when standing upright; US = height minus the length of the LS; Reduced US/LS is < 0.85 for Caucasian adults and < 0.78 for black adults.
¶ Increased arm span to height ratio is > 1.05 in adults.
|In the absence of family history of Marfan syndrome, any one of the following criteria is diagnostic of MFS:|
|Aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva of Z ≥ 2 or aortic root dissection and ectopia lentis*|
|Aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva of Z ≥ 2 or aortic root dissection and causal FBN1 mutation.|
|Aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva of Z ≥ 2 or aortic root dissection and systemic score ≥ 7*|
|Ectopia lentis and causal FBN1 mutation that has been identified in a person with aortic aneurysm§|
|In the presence of family history of Marfan syndrome, any one of the following criteria is diagnostic of MFS:|
|Systemic score ≥ 7*|
|Aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva of Z ≥ 2 in patients aged ≥ 20 (Z ≥ 3 in patients aged < 20) or aortic root dissection*|
* For the criteria with an asterisk, MFS can only be diagnosed in the absence of distinguishing features of Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), vascular EDS, or Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS), and following TGFBR1/2, COL3A1, and collagen biochemical testing when indicated.
** Since the Z score for aortic root size assumes a linear correlation between aortic root diameter and body surface area (BSA), it may underestimate the degree of aortic root dilatation in patients with a larger BSA. Given that most authorities consider an aortic root diameter of ≥ 40 mm to be dilated, a patient with an aortic root diameter ≥ 40 mm but a Z score < 2 should be considered to meet aortic criteria for purposes of the revised Ghent nosology.
§ Patient with ectopia lentis, without aortic disease and with FBN1 mutation, not associated with aortic disease, should be classified under “Ectopia lentis syndrome”.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of connective tissue diseases characterized by skin hyperextensibility and fragility and articular hypermobility. There are multiple genotypic and phenotypic variants, ranging from primary articular and dermal manifestations with hypermobility and subluxation as well as fragile cigarette paper skin that scars poorly, to rare severe forms with risk of spontaneous arterial and organ rupture.
The primary defects in EDS are found in genes that encode for collagen types I, III, and V, although other genetic defects, such as mutations in PLOD1 (responsible for the kyphoscoliosis type), ADAMTS2 (responsible for the dermatosparaxis type), and tenascin-XB (responsible for an autosomal recessive form of EDS), have also been implicated.
Many types of EDS have been identified, and are described in Table III. Patients with EDS present variably depending on their disease type.
|EDS Type||Name||Mode of Inheritance||Genetic Defect||Clinical Manifestations|
|I||Classic, Gravis||AD*||COL5A1COL5A2||Skin hyperextensibility.Joint hypermobility.Wide, atrophic, papyraceous scarring.Fragile skin that heals with “cigarette paper” scars.|
|II||Classic, Mitis||AD||COL5A1COL5A2||Similar to type I, but less severe.|
|IV||Vascular||AD||COL3A1||Thin, translucent skin.Easy bruisability.Spontaneous rupture of large or medium arteries, bowel, and uterus.Some patients have characteristic facies with decreased adipose tissue in the face, thin nose and lips, and large eyes.|
|VI||Kyphoscoliosis/Ocular-scoliotic||AR**||PLOD1||Congenital scoliosis.Ocular fragility with potential for rupture.Neonatal hypotonia.|
|VII||Arthrochalasia||Congenital hip dislocation.Recurrent articular subluxations.|
|VIIC||Dermatosparaxis||AR||ADAMTS2||Severe skin fragility with sagging.Redundant skin, blue sclera.|
* AD = autosomal dominant
** AR = autosomal recessive
Less common types of EDS:
Joint hypermobility syndrome
Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by joint laxity and hypermobility. Although JHS primarily affects the musculoskeletal system with symptoms of persistent joint pain, low back pain, tendonitis, bursitis, epicondylitis, dislocation and fatigue, other organs and systems, such as skin, nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract, can also be involved. In fact, gastrointestinal involvement seems to be a quite common feature of JHS, manifesting as nausea, non-specific abdominal pain, constipation/diarrhea, hiatus hernia, rectocele and others. There is also some evidence suggesting possible association of JHS with inflammatory bowel diseases. Patients may have skin striae and hyperextensibility, as well as varicose veins, hernias, and uterine prolapse. Autonomic dysfunction is also a common manifestation expressed many times as postural tachycardic syndrome. Finally, a link between psychological distress and JHS is increasingly recognized, mostly with anxiety disorders but also with depression and other conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Prevalence of JHS is unknown, although it is estimated to be around 3% in the UK.
Although JHS appears to be strongly heritable, no single genetic mutation has been identified as the cause. Some authorities believe JHS to be synonymous with Hypermobility EDS (type III). Females are more commonly affected than males. See Table IV and Table V for diagnostic criteria for JHS.
|One point for each of the following:|
|Passive dorsiflexion of the right 5th MCP to ≥ 90 degrees.|
|Passive dorsiflexion of the left 5th MCP to ≥ 90 degrees.|
|Passive opposition of the right thumb to the volar aspect of the right forearm.|
|Passive opposition of the left thumb to the volar aspect of the left forearm.|
|Passive extension of the right elbow to ≥ 10 degrees.|
|Passive extension of the left elbow to ≥ 10 degrees.|
|Hyperextension of the right knee to ≥ 10 degrees.|
|Hyperextension of the left knee to ≥ 10 degrees.|
|Placement of the hands flat on the floor without bending the knees.|
|Beighton score of ≥ 4 out of 9.|
|Arthralgia for > 3 months in ≥ 4 joints.|
|Beighton score of 1, 2, or 3 out of 9 (or 0, 1, 2, or 3 if ≥ 50 years of age).|
|Arthralgia in 1 to 3 joints or back pain, spondylosis, or spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis.|
|Dislocation in > 1 joint or in 1 joint ≥ 2 times.|
|≥ 3 soft tissue lesions (e.g., tenosynovitis, epicondylitis, bursitis).|
|Skin striae, hyperextensibility, thin skin, or abnormal scarring.|
|Ptosis, myopia, or antimongoloid slant.|
|Varicose veins, hernia, or uterine or rectal prolapse.|
|Diagnosis is placed if any of the following is fulfilled:|
|a. 2 major criteria are present|
|b. 1 major and 2 minor criteria are present|
|c. 4 minor criteria are present|
|d. 2 minor criteria are present provided a first degree relative has been also diagnosed|
Several other conditions should be considered when contemplating the diagnosis of MFS, EDS, or JHS.
Differential diagnosis of MFS
Familial ectopia lentis syndrome (ELS)
Per the revised Ghent nosology, diagnostic criteria for ELS include ectopia lentis and an FBN1 mutation not previously known to cause aortic root dilatation or dissection, or absence of the FBN1 mutation. Autosomal recessive forms of ELS are associated with mutations in the LTBP2 and ADAMTSL4 genes.
Usual manifestations of this phenotype are: myopia, mitral valve prolapse, aortic dilatation, marfanoid habitus. Per the revised Ghent nosology, diagnostic criteria for the MASS phenotype include aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva of Z < 2 and systemic score ≥ 5 with at least one skeletal manifestation and absence of ectopia lentis.
Also known as congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA): Characterized by Marfanoid habitus, joint contractures, and crumpled ears. Caused by a mutation in the FBN2 gene.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS)
LDS is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, associated with mutations in genes related to TGF-b signaling. It is characterized by Marfanoid habitus, hypertelorism, bifid uvula or cleft palate, arterial tortuosity, and multiple arterial aneurysms, including aortic aneurysms. Patients may also have craniosynostosis, translucent and velvety skin, talipes equinovarus (clubfoot), and cervical spine instability. Ectopia lentis is absent.
Given the extremely high risk for aortic and arterial aneurysm formation and rupture, patients with LDS should undergo annual MR imaging from their cerebral circulation to their pelvis. LDS is caused by a mutation in one of the following genes: TGFBR1,TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD3. Prognosis is much worse compared to MFS or vascular type of EDS.
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS)
Characterized by Marfanoid habitus with craniosynostosis, muscle hypotonia and developmental delay. Caused by a mutation in the FBN1 gene.
Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm syndrome (FTAA)
FTAA are a group of disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, with incomplete penetrance. Marfanoid habitus is absent. Characteristics of FTAA are: thoracic aortic aneurysms, patent ductis arteriosus, non-thoracic aneurysms, livedo reticularis, and iris flocculi. FTAA are associated also with increased risk of early coronary disease and strokes. They are caused by a mutation in the TGFBR1, TGFBR2, MYH11, MYLK, PRKG1 or ACTA2 gene, with the latter being the most common one.
Characterized by Marfanoid habitus, developmental delay, thrombosis, myopia, and ectopia lentis. However, the lens is usually displaced downward, unlike in MFS, where it is displaced upward. Caused by a mutation in the CBS gene.
Stickler syndrome is a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders; currently five types of Stickler syndrome have been identified. It is characterized by vitreous abnormalities, high myopia, and hearing loss. Patients may experience retinal detachment that leads to blindness. They may have a bifid uvula, cleft palate, and Pierre Robin sequence. Early osteoarthritis development and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia are also observed. Stickler syndrome is caused by mutations in any of the following genes: COL2A1, COL11A1, COL11A2, COL9A1, COL9A2.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS)
Unlike patients with MFS, patients with WMS have short stature and brachydactyly. WMS is also characterized by microspherophakia and other ocular abnormalities and joint stiffness. It is caused by a mutation in the FBN1, LTPB2 or ADAMTS10 gene.
Differential diagnosis of EDS
Cutis laxa (CL) could be congenital or acquired. Congenital CL is inherited usually in an autosomal dominant manner (ELN-elastin mutations). However, it could be also inherited in an autosomal recessive (mutation in other genes, like FBLN5, FBLN4) or X-linked recessive manner (mutations in the gene encoding for the copper transporting ATPase, ATP7A – Cutis laxa resulting from this particular mutation is called occipital horn syndrome).
Acquired CL has been associated with drugs, neoplastic diseases, infections, hypersensitivity reactions and inflammatory diseases. Underlying pathogenetic mechanisms remain largely unknown.
Also known as generalized elastolysis, cutis laxa is characterized by an absence of skin elasticity leading to loose and sagging skin. Unlike in EDS, when tension is applied to and then released from skin of patients with cutis laxa, it does not spring back into place due to the loss of elastin.
Patients with cutis laxa may have craniofacial abnormalities, emphysema, aortic dilatation, and pulmonic stenosis.
Tenascin-X belongs to the Tenascin family proteins. It is an extracellular protein playing role not only in the matrix architecture and the cell adhesion but also in participating to signaling pathways. Tenascin-X deficiency leads to a phenotype that can be clinically indistinguishable from EDS, called also classical-like EDS.
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy
Also known as atonic-sclerotic dystrophy, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy is characterized by multiple contractures of proximal joints and hypermobility of distal joints in the setting of generalized muscle weakness. It presents in infancy or early childhood and is caused by mutations in the COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3 genes.
Mild osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)
Patients with OI may manifest joint hypermobility and easy bruisability. OI is predominantly caused by mutations in the genes that encode type I collagen, COL1A1 and COL1A2.
Differential diagnosis of JHS
Non-specific joint laxity
What tests to perform?
Thorough history, including family history, and physical examination, are the most important steps in making a diagnosis of MFS. Genetic testing accompanied by genetic counseling pre- and post-testing is a key element in the diagnosis of MFS.
Echocardiography should be performed in all patients with MFS at the time of diagnosis and 6 months subsequently to determine the aortic root and ascending aortic diameters and their rates of enlargement. See below for more information on the management of MFS.
Thorough history, including family history and physical examination are the most important steps in making a diagnosis of EDS. Genetic testing accompanied by genetic counseling pre- and post-testing is a key element in the diagnosis of certain EDS types.
Skin biopsy to culture dermal fibroblasts can confirm the diagnosis of vascular EDS (type IV), arthrochalasia (types VIIA and VIIB), and dermatosparaxis (type VIIC) via biochemical testing.
Ocular-scoliotic EDS (type VI) can be diagnosed by using high performance liquid chromatography to test urinary levels of total hydroxylysyl pyridinoline and lysyl pyridinoline. An elevated ratio of lysyl pyridinoline to hydroxylysyl pyridinoline is diagnostic.
Echocardiography looking for mitral valve prolapse and aortic root dilatation should be initially performed. Usually the findings are of minor clinical significance, therefore echo follow-up is not routinely required.
The diagnosis of JHS is a clinical one. Thorough history and physical examination are essential to making the diagnosis (see Tables IV and V above for diagnostic criteria). It is also important to exclude entities with similar symptomatology like MFS and EDS.
How should patients with Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or joint hypermobility syndrome be managed?
For all patients with hypermobile joints, including those with MFS, EDS, or JHS, activities that place stress on joints should be discouraged, especially in childhood. Careful attention to optimizing mechanics is important. Patients should maintain an ideal, low body weight, and perform regular quadriceps and core strengthening exercises to protect their hypermobile joints.
Patients should undergo transesophageal echocardiography at diagnosis and again at 6 months to determine aortic root and ascending aortic diameters and their rates of dilatation. Annual echocardiography should be performed in adults with stable aortic root dilatation < 45 mm. Once aortic root diameter reaches 45 mm, echocardiographic screening should occur more frequently, such as every 6 months.
More frequent echocardiography should also be performed in the setting of rapid aortic enlargement (≥ 5 mm/year), valvular dysfunction, or cardiomyopathy. Adults with several consecutive normal echocardiograms can space out their screening to every 2-3 years. Mitral valve prolapse and left ventricular dysfunction can be also observed in MFS patients.
It should be kept in mind that echocardiography measures the internal aortic diameter whereas CT and MR measure the external aortic diameter. Therefore, measurements taken by CT or MR tend to be 2 to 4 mm larger than those taken by echocardiography.
All patients with MFS and aortic involvement should receive beta blocker therapy with the goal of decreasing the rate of aortic dilatation. In patients who cannot tolerate beta blockade, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) should be substituted. It is noteworthy that ARBs seem to be more beneficial in patients who have FBN1 haploinsufficient mutations. Statins have been shown to have some favourable effects in Marfan-mice models, while administration of calcium-channel blockers should be avoided. Patients with a thoracic aortic aneurysm should be treated concurrently with beta blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers.
Prophylactic aortic root surgery (either composite valve graft or valve-sparing aortic root replacement) should be undertaken when aortic root diameter reaches about 50 mm. Valve-sparing operations appear to associate with lower rates of valve-related complications and better long-term prognosis. Surgery for patients with smaller aortic root diameters should be considered when:
Aortic diameter is enlarging rapidly (≥ 5 mm/year).
Aortic insufficiency is progressing.
A family member with MFS had an aortic dissection at a diameter < 50 mm.
Women who plan to become pregnant should consider elective replacement of the aortic root and ascending aorta if the diameter is > 40 mm.
Patients should have annual ophthalmologic exams, or more frequently as indicated.
Patients should undergo regular orthopedic evaluations for defects such as scoliosis and pectus abnormalities.
Strenuous exercise as well as isometric exercises that involve the Valsalva maneuver should be avoided.
Surgical correction of scoliosis or pectus deformities may be required.
Acute abdominal pain or back pain needs to be taken seriously in EDS, especially the vascular type, as it could indicate arterial rupture/dissection, intestinal perforation, or rupture of hollow or solid organs. Altered mental status could be a symptom of intracranial arterial rupture. Urgent CT or MR imaging should be undertaken in these emergent situations.
Uterine rupture can occur in pregnant women with EDS, especially the vascular type.
If a patient with dermatologic manifestations of EDS requires sutures, the sutures such be closely spaced and left in longer than usual.
Acute pain in patients with hypermobile joints can be managed with analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, chronic pain commonly develops in patients with JHS, and this type of pain is less responsive to analgesics and NSAIDs.
Patients with JHS may therefore require referral to pain management specialists for assistance with management of their chronic pain. Medications used to treat fibromyalgia, such as duloxetine, pregabalin, and milnacipran, may be useful in the treatment of chronic pain due to JHS. However, evidence is lacking.
Physical therapy is an important treatment for patients with JHS. Physical therapy can improve proprioception in damaged joints and can improve muscle strengthening. Patients can also be taught proper postures that will diminish strain on their joints. It is important to emphasize that patients with JHS need to continue to perform their physical therapy exercises once their sessions are completed. Otherwise, there is potential to lose the benefit gained from physical therapy.
Occupational therapy is also an important treatment for patients with JHS. Temporary splinting of hyperextensible small joints of the hand during certain activities may be required. Special devices, such as kitchen and writing utensils with wide grips, can help patients perform important daily activities.
Orthotics should be worn by patients with JHS who have pes planus to improve posture and decrease fatigue of lower extremity muscles.
Psychotherapy may be helpful in dealing with issues related to chronic pain, such as depression, anxiety, and poor sleep. Biofeedback and relaxation techniques may be of use.
Patient support groups can provide patient education and psychosocial support.
What happens to patients with Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or joint hypermobility syndrome?
In general, joint hypermobility diminishes with age.
Musculoskeletal: Scoliosis, pectus carinatum, pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, hindfoot deformity, pes planus, protrusio acetabuli, spondylolisthesis.
Cardiovascular: Aortic root dilatation, aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, aortic insufficiency, mitral valve prolapse, endocarditis, left ventricular dysfunction
Ophthalmologic: Ectopia lentis, retinal detachment, cataracts, glaucoma, myopia, amblyopia, strabismus.
Neurologic: Dural ectasia – especially lumbar and sacral spine.
Pulmonary: Spontaneous pneumothorax, emphysema, restrictive lung disease, sleep apnea.
Dental: Posterior crossbite, TMJ symptoms.
Just as there is genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with EDS, so too is there variability in the clinical course of disease. Median survival of patients with vascular EDS (type IV) is 48 years.
Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, articular subluxation, muscle spasms, chronic pain, kyphoscoliosis.
Cardiovascular: Aortic dissection or aneurysm, arterial rupture.
Neurologic: Autonomic dysfunction (e.g., hypotension and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome [POTS]).
Dermatologic: Easy bruises, scarring, skin fragility.
Hematologic: Prolonged bleeding.
Dental: TMJ symptoms, periodontal disease, friable oral mucosa and gingiva.
Ophthalmologic: Retinal detachment, globe rupture secondary to trauma.
Gastrointestinal: Intestinal perforation.
Gynecologic: Uterine rupture.
Musculoskeletal: Kinesiophobia (the avoidance of painful movements) can lead to muscle deconditioning, loss of function and mobility, and assumption of abnormal postures. Patients may develop chronic, widespread pain.
Neurologic: Some patients may have generalized hyperalgesia. Some patients will develop autonomic dysfunction as manifested by bowel or bladder dysfunction, syncope, palpitations, orthostasis, and POTS. There appears to be an association between JHS and carpal tunnel syndrome, although a causative relationship in either direction has not been elucidated at this time.
Dermatologic: Striae atrophicae usually form in adolescence, whereas striae gravidarum tend not to develop during pregnancy. Papyraceous scars may form.
Gastrointestinal: Hiatal hernias can cause gastroesophageal reflux disease. Abdominal wall hernias may also occur.
Gynecologic: polycycstic ovaries syndrome, cysts, leiomyomas, endometrial hypertrophy, endometriosis. Parous women may develop uterine prolapse, rectal prolapse, rectocele, or cystocele.
Psychiatric: Depression and anxiety may be associated with chronic pain.
How to utilize team care?
Multidisciplinary team care is critical to the successful management of patients with MFS, EDS, and JHS.
Dentistry and orthodontics.
Obstetrics and gynecology/maternal fetal medicine.
Dentistry, orthodontics, and endodontics.
Obstetrics and gynecology/maternal fetal medicine.
Are there clinical practice guidelines to inform decision making?
MFS and EDS
Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with thoracic aortic disease help inform decision making. These guidelines were published in 2010 as a combined effort of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, American Stroke Association, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and Society for Vascular Medicine.
There are no clinical practice guidelines at the time of this writing to inform decision making in JHS.
759.82 Marfan syndrome
756.83 Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
728.5 Joint Hypermobility Syndrome
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- Does this patient have a hypermobility syndrome such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or joint hypermobility syndrome?
- Marfan syndrome
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Joint hypermobility syndrome
- Differential diagnosis of MFS
- Familial ectopia lentis syndrome (ELS)
- MASS phenotype
- Beals syndrome
- Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS)
- Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS)
- Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm syndrome (FTAA)
- Stickler syndrome
- Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS)
- Differential diagnosis of EDS
- Cutis laxa
- Tenascin-X deficiency
- Stickler syndrome
- Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy
- Mild osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)
- Differential diagnosis of JHS
- What tests to perform?
- How should patients with Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or joint hypermobility syndrome be managed?
- What happens to patients with Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or joint hypermobility syndrome?
- How to utilize team care?
- Are there clinical practice guidelines to inform decision making?
- Other considerations
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