The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has licensed 2 vaccines for the prevention of monkeypox infection: ACAM2000 (smallpox [vaccinia] vaccine, live) and Jynneos (smallpox and monkeypox vaccine, live, nonreplicating).
In order to mitigate the spread of monkeypox, the US Department of Health and Human Services has expanded access to Jynneos for adults 18 years of age and older determined to be at high risk for monkeypox infection.
While in ample supply, the ACAM2000 vaccine should not be used in patients who have certain health conditions including: cardiac disease or a history of cardiac disease; eye disease treated with topical steroids; congenital or acquired immune deficiency disorders, including those taking immunosuppressive medications; eczema and persons with a history of eczema or other acute or chronic exfoliative skin conditions; infants less than 12 months of age; and pregnant individuals. These patients may be at greater risk of adverse events including severe disability, permanent neurological sequelae and/or death.
Patients who are at risk for severe adverse events with ACAM2000 or severe disease from monkeypox should be prioritized to receive Jynneos.
An individual is considered fully vaccinated about 2 weeks after the second dose of Jynneos and 4 weeks after receiving ACAM2000. According to the CDC, there are currently no data available on the effectiveness of these vaccines during the 2022 monkeypox outbreak.
- Monkeypox: Vaccines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed July 26, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/considerations-for-monkeypox-vaccination.html
- Jynneos. Package insert. Bavarian Nordic, Inc.; 2022. Accessed July 26, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/media/131078/download
- ACAM2000. Package insert. Emergent BioSolutions Inc.; 2022. Accessed July 26, 2022. https://www.fda.gov/media/75792/download
This article originally appeared on MPR