Zachary Spiritos

All articles by Zachary Spiritos

Achalasia and esophageal motility disorders

I. What every physician needs to know. Disorders of esophageal motility can be divided into two categories: hypomotility and hypermotility, either of which can affect the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and/or the esophageal body. The esophagus is lined by both circular and longitudinal muscles that terminate at a 2- to 4-cm circular muscle layer called…

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