Carol Kauffman, Author at Psychiatry Advisor

Carol Kauffman

All articles by Carol Kauffman

Encephalitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has encephalitis? What should you expect to find? Encephalitis is diffuse inflammation of brain parenchyma, usually due to infection with a virus. It is classified as primary if it is a direct result of infection (the neurons are infected and virus often can…

Leishmania species

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Parasite name and classification Leishmania species – protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania What is the best treatment? General wound care is a mainstay of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment Specific CL treatment includes local, oral, and parenteral agents. Local treatments include topical paromomycin and paromomycin-gentamicin, which have been…

Mycobacterium leprae

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has leprosy? What should you expect to find? Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is caused by the acid fast bacterium Mycobacteria leprae and can present with varied clinical symptoms that primarily involve skin and peripheral nerves, along a continuum of severity. Understanding the classifications of…

Aseptic meningitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has aseptic meningitis? What should you expect to find? The general term meningitis refers to the nonspecific inflammation of the meninges. Meningitis is distinct from encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain parenchyma and is strongly associated with altered mental status. Meningitis and…

Blastomyces dermatitidis

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, causes blastomycosis. This fungus exists as a mold at room temperature in the laboratory and in the environment; it is a yeast at 37°C in the laboratory and in human tissues. What is the best treatment? Patients who…

Acinetobacter species

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, non-fermenting, often coccobacillary bacteria that belong in the family Moraxellaceae. The genus currently comprises of 34 species, 25 of them have valid names and 9 are named by their genomic group, of which A. baumannii is the most important in…

Septic Arthritis/Infection native joints

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has infectious arthritis? What should you expect to find? The symptoms, signs and presentation of septic arthritis are dependent upon: The class or type of pathogen (bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, or viral) Location of the afflicted joint Underlying illnesses and immune function of the…

Invasive Candidiasis/Candidemia

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has invasive candidiasis/candidemia? What should you expect to find? Symptoms mimic the clinical picture seen with bacterial infections/bacteremia: Candidemia: fever, chills, hypotension, confusion Localized invasive candidiasis: depends on the organ involved; examples include: Abdominal abscesses: fever, chills, abdominal pain Urinary tract infection: dysuria,…

Sporothrix schenckii

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Sporothrix schenckii, a thermally dimorphic fungus, causes sporotrichosis. This fungus grows as a mold in the environment and in the laboratory at 25°C to 28°C. At body temperature and in the laboratory at 35°C to 37°C, the organism grows as a yeast. What is…

Clostridium difficile infection

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has C. difficile infection (CDI)? What should you expect to find? Diarrhea is the key symptom of Clostridium difficile infection, with various degrees of abdominal cramping and pain in most patients, but accompanied by fever in a minority (28%). Occasionally, patients also have…

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