Addiction

Talk therapy, modified for literacy level, helps ease chronic pain for disadvantaged populations

Both modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pain education (EDU) interventions were associated with improved pain in patients with disadvantaged backgrounds.

Significant variation in mortality trends in substance use disorders among US counties

Mortality rates decreased for alcohol use disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence between 1980 and 2014. Mortality rates for drug use disorders increased both nationally and in each county over the same period.

Little Packaging Information on Storage, Disposal of Opioid Pain-Relievers

Little Packaging Information on Storage, Disposal of Opioid Pain-Relievers

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Package inserts of opioid analgesics may not consistently provide information regarding safe drug storage and/or disposal.

Treatment Duration of Extended-Release Naltrexone for Opioid Dependence and Outcomes

Treatment Duration of Extended-Release Naltrexone for Opioid Dependence and Outcomes

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A longer duration of extended-release naltrexone treatment in individuals with opioid dependence was associated with improved outcomes and reduced rates of relapse.

Interventions in Middle School Can Reduce Alcohol Misuse in Mexican American Adolescents

Interventions in Middle School Can Reduce Alcohol Misuse in Mexican American Adolescents

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Because even moderate reductions in adolescent drinking and alcohol use disorders have the potential to reduce short- and long-term public health harms, these findings support broad implementation of the program.

Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders Associated With Cannabis Use

Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders Associated With Cannabis Use

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The investigators found that antisocial (β=0.23) and borderline (β=0.20) personality disorders were strongly associated with cannabis use as well as with cannabis use disorder.

Increased Odds of Cigarette Use, Relapse Among Cannabis Users

Increased Odds of Cigarette Use, Relapse Among Cannabis Users

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The findings of these analyses suggest that, to an extent, this relationship might be generalized to cannabis users as a whole, not just those diagnosed with a cannabis use disorder.

Liquids in E-Cigarettes Are Heterogeneous, Frequently Toxic

Liquids in E-Cigarettes Are Heterogeneous, Frequently Toxic

The more chemicals in e-liquid, the more toxic it is likely to be.

Scale of Online Marketplace for Marijuana Increasing

Scale of Online Marketplace for Marijuana Increasing

Online marijuana searches grew by 98 percent as a proportion of all searches from 2005 to 2017.

Lofexidine Gets FDA Committee Nod for Opioid Withdrawal

Lofexidine Gets FDA Committee Nod for Opioid Withdrawal

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If approved, Lucemyra will be the first non-opioid medication indicated to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms.

E-Cigarettes Associated With More Harms Than Benefits at Population Level

E-Cigarettes Associated With More Harms Than Benefits at Population Level

E-cigarettes are associated with more harm than good on a population level.

Many Teens Who Use Tobacco Don't Self-Identify as Users

Many Teens Who Use Tobacco Don't Self-Identify as Users

Most adolescent users of tobacco products do not identify as users.

Mortality Rates for Substance Use Disorders, Intentional Injuries Vary Widely By County

Mortality Rates for Substance Use Disorders, Intentional Injuries Vary Widely By County

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Researchers calculated age-standardized mortality rates on a county level in the United States between 1980 and 2014, specifically examining rates for self-harm, interpersonal violence, alcohol use, and drug use.

Cognitive Impairment May Predict Persistent Psychosis in Ketamine Users

Cognitive Impairment May Predict Persistent Psychosis in Ketamine Users

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Ketamine-dependent patients who exhibited psychosis demonstrated levels of spatial problem solving and verbal memory impairment similar to those of patients with schizophrenia.

Heavy Cigarette Smoking in Adolescence May Increase Risk for Psychosis

Heavy Cigarette Smoking in Adolescence May Increase Risk for Psychosis

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Despite the recognition that early daily tobacco use likely increases the risk for later psychosis, investigation of the effect of covariates such as substance use, existing psychotic features, or parental/family factors was lacking in the literature.

A Growing Threat: Increasing Number of Benzodiazepine Prescriptions in the US

A Growing Threat: Increasing Number of Benzodiazepine Prescriptions in the US

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Overprescription, overuse, and addiction to benzodiazepines is a growing threat in the United States.

Alcohol Use Disorder a Major Risk Factor in Dementia Onset

Alcohol Use Disorder a Major Risk Factor in Dementia Onset

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These findings support the recognition of alcohol use disorders as a major risk factor for all dementia types.

Case Study: Onset of Amnestic Syndrome After Cocaine and Possible Fentanyl Use

Case Study: Onset of Amnestic Syndrome After Cocaine and Possible Fentanyl Use

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Case study: new-onset amnesia occuring after cocaine and possible fentanyl use.

Does Access to Medical Cannabis Reduce Risk for Opioid Abuse?

Does Access to Medical Cannabis Reduce Risk for Opioid Abuse?

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While results so far may seem to support a link between increased access to cannabis and a reduction in prescription opioid use, findings from a study published in 2018 found otherwise.

E-Cigarette Vapors: A Potential Source of Lead, Toxic Metal Exposure

E-Cigarette Vapors: A Potential Source of Lead, Toxic Metal Exposure

Toxic metals leak from E-cigarettes and are present in the aerosols inhaled by users.

Pharmacotherapy Improves Criminal Justice Outcomes in Opioid Dependence With Mental Illness

Pharmacotherapy Improves Criminal Justice Outcomes in Opioid Dependence With Mental Illness

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All 3 opioid-dependence pharmacotherapies — methadone, buprenorphine, and oral naltrexone — were associated with reductions in inpatient substance abuse treatment.

Naltrexone More Effective for Alcohol Use Disorder in Nicotine Users

Naltrexone More Effective for Alcohol Use Disorder in Nicotine Users

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There has been much variability in the capacity for pharmacological treatments to help curb alcoholism, and the research community has remained interested in determining specific factors that may predict the efficacy of treatments such as naltrexone.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders likely to be vastly underdiagnosed in US

A multisite, cross-sectional study found a large mismatch between previously diagnosed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the actual prevalence of cases identified.

Antidepressant Adherence Associated With Cessation of Long-term Prescription Opioid Use

Antidepressant Adherence Associated With Cessation of Long-term Prescription Opioid Use

Antidepressant medication adherence is linked with cessation of opioid use.

Drinkers Often Unsuccessful at Reducing Alcohol Use Despite Motivation

Drinkers Often Unsuccessful at Reducing Alcohol Use Despite Motivation

Not many high-risk individuals who are motivated to reduce alcohol comsumption are successful after 6 months.

Aberrant Drug Behaviors, Pain Catastrophizing Reduced With Web-Based Program

Aberrant Drug Behaviors, Pain Catastrophizing Reduced With Web-Based Program

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Aberrant drug-related behavior was found to be reduced in patients receiving the web-based program in addition to standard care compared with standard care alone.

Cannabis Use Associated With Subsequent Psychotic Experiences in Adolescents

Cannabis Use Associated With Subsequent Psychotic Experiences in Adolescents

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Both early-onset cannabis users and late-onset cannabis users had an increased risk for psychotic experiences at age 18.

Effects of Depression, Alcohol Use on Retention in Antiretroviral Therapy

Effects of Depression, Alcohol Use on Retention in Antiretroviral Therapy

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Alcohol use disorder and depression were both associated with higher disengagement from antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV.

Effects of Parents Supplying Alcohol to Adolescents

Effects of Parents Supplying Alcohol to Adolescents

Parents should be advised that this practice is associated with risk, both directly and indirectly through increased access to alcohol from other sources.

Presence of Prescription Opioids May Increase Risk of Initiation in Household Members

Presence of Prescription Opioids May Increase Risk of Initiation in Household Members

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Prescription opioids kept in the household may increase the risk for opioid initiation in co-residents.

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